1958 – 1970:  Woodcuts: Early on the relief process of woodcut was the medium of choice beginning while in graduate school with Alfred Sessler at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. In 1958 the first serious use of the medium was used to produce a multicolor woodcut using the reduction technique. A systematic process of printing a color followed by cutting away those areas where that color will appear. Repeating this sequence until all colors for this image are complete.  This method requires that each for an edition be printed in this progressive fashion.

The work during this period remained the medium of choice while exploring new spacial, pictorial directions. Most of this work was essentially black and white with a few exceptions such as ‘Shamrock Tree’ using an ink bleed technique. By 1970 the work was becoming less expressionistic and more abstract in the use of the formal elements an pictorial structure more defined.

Following a two year break from printmaking and concentrating purely on pencil drawing on reams of 8.5 x 11 inch writing paper the linear element of line was discovered. A great revelation requiring a new approach to the printmaki: thus etching and the intaglio process of hard ground line, aquatint, soft ground and deep relief etching. This produced a series of black and white hard ground etchings titled ‘Autumn Veil’, ‘Autumn Moon’ and a score of others using this technique while developing hatching and cross hatching for stronger light / dark patens.

This transition lead to experiments with color and the development of color system based on the use of the three primary colors of yellow, red, blue and black ink on white paper. This method required a sound understanding of color theory. This approach relied on over printing the various colors wet on wet to achieve blending to produce secondary and tertiary hues. This printing process required the development of a new method for registering the four color plates.


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